Language

All language functions grouped by creation,compostion and audio control.

Structure

Expressions

Musical objects are created, composed and played using the melrõse tool by evaluating expressions. Expressions use any of the predefined functions (creation,composition,audio control). By assigning an expression to a variable name, you can use that expression by its name to compose other objects.

variables

Variable names must start with a non-digit character and can have zero or more characters in [a-z A-Z _ 0-9]. An assignment “=” is used to create a variable. To delete a variable, assign it to the special value “nil”.

comment

Use “//” to add comment, either on a new line or and the end of an expression.

Creation functions

Composition functions

Audio control functions

at

Create an index getter (1-based) to select a musical object.

at(index,object)

at(1,scale('e/m')) // => E

biab

Set the Beats in a Bar; default is 4.

biab(beats-in-a-bar)

biab(4)

bpm

Set the Beats Per Minute (BPM) [1..300]; default is 120.

bpm(beats-per-minute)

bpm(90)

speedup = iterator(80,100,120,140)

l = loop(bpm(speedup),sequence('c e g'),next(speedup))

channel

Select a MIDI channel, must be in [1..16]; must be a top-level operator.

channel(number,sequenceable)

channel(2,sequence('c2 e3')) // plays on instrument connected to MIDI channel 2

chord

Create a Chord from its string format.

chord(‘note’)

chord('c#5/m/1')

chord('g/M/2') // Major G second inversion

chordsequence

Create a Chord sequence using this format.

chordsequence(‘chords’)

chordsequence('e f') // => (E A_ B) (F A C5)

chordsequence('(c d)') // => (C E G D G_ A)

device

Select a MIDI device from the available device IDs; must become before channel.

device(number,sequenceable)

device(1,channel(2,sequence('c2 e3'))) // plays on connected device 1 through MIDI channel 2

duration

Computes the duration of the object using the current BPM.

duration(object)

duration(note('c')) // => 375ms

dynamic

Creates a new modified musical object for which the dynamics of all notes are changed. The first parameter controls the emphasis the note, e.g. + (mezzoforte,mf), – (piano,p) or a velocity [0..127]. .

dynamic(emphasis,object)

dynamic('++',sequence('e f')) // => E++ F++

dynamic(112,note('a')) // => A++++

dynamicmap

Changes the dynamic of notes from a musical object. 1-index-based mapping.

dynamicmap(‘mapping’,object)

dynamicmap('1:++,2:--',sequence('e f')) // => E++ F--

dynamicmap('2:o,1:++,2:--,1:++', sequence('a b') // => B A++ B-- A++

export

Writes a multi-track MIDI file.

export(filename,sequenceable)

export('myMelody-v1',myObject)

fraction

Creates a new object for which the fraction of duration of all notes are changed. The first parameter controls the fraction of the note, e.g. 1 = whole, 2 = half, 4 = quarter, 8 = eight, 16 = sixteenth. Fraction can also be an exact float value between 0 and 1. .

fraction(object,object)

fraction(8,sequence('e f')) // => 8E 8F , shorten the notes from quarter to eight

fractionmap

Create a sequence with notes for which the fractions are changed. 1-based indexing. use space or comma as separator.

fractionmap(‘fraction-mapping’,object)

fractionmap('3:. 2:4,1:2',sequence('c e g')) // => .G E 2C

group

Create a new sequence in which all notes of a musical object are grouped.

group(sequenceable)

group(sequence('c d e')) // => (C D E)

if

Supports conditions with operators on numbers: <,<=,>,>=,!=,==.


import

Evaluate all the statements from another file.

import(filename)

import('drumpatterns.mel')

index

Returns the current index of an object (e.g. iterator,interval,repeat).


interval

Create an integer repeating interval (from,to,by,method). Default method is ‘repeat’, Use next() to get a new integer.

interval(from,to,by)

int1 = interval(-2,4,1)

lp_cdef = loop(transpose(int1,sequence('c d e f')), next(int1))

iterator

Iterator that has an array of constant values and evaluates to one. Use next() to increase and rotate the value.

iterator(array-element)

i = iterator(1,3,5,7,9)

p = transpose(i,note('c'))

lp = loop(p,next(i))

		

join

Joins one or more musical objects as one.

join(first,second)

a = chord('a')

b = sequence('(c e g)')

ab = join(a,b) // => (A D_5 E5) (C E G)

joinmap

Creates a new join by mapping elements. 1-index-based mapping.

joinmap(‘indices’,join)

j = join(note('c'), sequence('d e f'))

jm = joinmap('1 (2 3) 4',j) // => C = D =

key

Use the key to trigger the play of musical object.

key(‘note’)

c2 = key('c2') // C2 key on the default input device and default channel

c2 = key(device(1,note('c2'))) // C2 key on input device 1

c2 = key(device(1,channel(2,note('c2'))) // C2 key on input device 1 and channel 2

c2 = key(channel(3,note('c2')) // C2 key on the default input device and channel 3

knob

Use the knob as an integer value for a parameter in any object.

knob(device-id,midi-number)

axiom = 1 // device ID for my connected M-Audio Axiom 25

B1 = 20 // MIDI number assigned to this knob on the controller

k = knob(axiom,B1)

transpose(k,scale(1,'E')) // when played, use the current value of knob "k"

listen

Listen for note(s) from a device and call a playable function to handle.

listen(variable-or-device-selector,function)

rec = note('c') // define a variable "rec" with a initial object ; this is a place holder

fun = play(rec) // define the playable function to call when notes are received ; loop and print are also possible

listen(rec,fun) // start a listener for notes from default input device, store it in "rec" and call "fun"

listen(device(1,rec),fun) // start a listener for notes from input device 1

loop

Create a new loop from one or more musical objects.

loop(object)

cb = sequence('c d e f g a b')

loop(cb,reverse(cb))

merge

Merges multiple sequences into one sequence.

merge(sequenceable)

m1 = notemap('..!..!..!', note('c2'))

m2 = notemap('4 7 10', note('d2'))

all = merge(m1,m2) // => = = C2 D2 = C2 D2 = C2 D2 = =

midi

Create a Note from MIDI information and is typically used for drum sets. The first parameter is a fraction {1,2,4,8,16} or a duration in milliseconds or a time.Duration. Second parameter is the MIDI number and must be one of [0..127]. The third parameter is the velocity (~ loudness) and must be one of [0..127].

midi(numberOrDuration,number,number)

midi(500,52,80) // => 500ms E3+

midi(16,36,70) // => 16C2 (kick)

midi_send

Sends a MIDI message with status, channel(ignore if < 1), 2nd byte and 3rd byte to an output device. Can be used as a musical object.

midi_send(device-id,status,channel,2nd-byte,3rd-byte

midi_send(1,0xB0,7,0x7B,0) // to device id 1, control change, all notes off in channel 7

midi_send(1,0xC0,2,1,0) // program change, select program 1 for channel 2

midi_send(2,0xB0,4,0,16) // control change, bank select 16 for channel 4

midi_send(3,0xB0,1,120,0) // control change, all notes off for channel 1

multitrack

Create a multi-track object from zero or more tracks.

multitrack(track)

multitrack(track1,track2,track3) // 3 tracks in one multi-track object

next

Is used to produce the next value in a generator such as random, iterator and interval. The function itself does not return the value; use the generator for that.

i = interval(-4,4,2)

pi = transpose(i,sequence('c d e f g a b')) // current value of "i" is used

lp_pi = loop(pi,next(i)) // "i" will advance to the next value

begin(lp_pi)

note

Create a Note using this format.

note(‘letter’)

note('e')

note('2.e#--')

notemap

Creates a mapper of notes by index (1-based) or using dots (.) and bangs (!).

notemap(‘space-separated-1-based-indices-or-dots-and-bangs’,has-note)

m1 = notemap('..!..!..!', note('c2'))

m2 = notemap('3 6 9', octave(-1,note('d2')))

octave

Change the pitch of notes by steps of 12 semitones for one or more musical objects.

octave(offset,sequenceable)

octave(1,sequence('c d')) // => C5 D5

octavemap

Create a sequence with notes for which the order and the octaves are changed.

octavemap(‘int2int’,object)

octavemap('1:-1,2:0,3:1',chord('c')) // => (C3 E G5)

onbar

Puts a musical object on a track to start at a specific bar.

onbar(bar,object)

tr = track("solo",2, onbar(1,soloSequence)) // 2 = channel

onkey

Assign a playable to a key. If this key is pressed the playable will start. If pressed again, the play will stop. Remove the assignment using the value nil for the playable.

onkey(key,playable-or-evaluatable-or-nil)

onkey('c',myLoop) // on the default input device, when C4 is pressed then start or stop myLoop



axiom = 1 // device ID for the M-Audio Axiom 25

c2 = key(device(axiom,note('c2')))

fun = play(scale(2,'c')) // what to do when a key is pressed (NoteOn)

onkey(c2, fun) // if C2 is pressed on the axiom device then evaluate the function "fun"

onoff

Play will send MIDI Note On, stop will send MIDI Note Off.

onoff(note)

// latch example

// if C4 is hit on input device 1 

// then play (sustain) key E on the default output device. 

// A second hit of C4 will stop it



onkey('c4',onoff('e')) // uses default input and default output MIDI device

pitch

Change the pitch with a delta of semitones.

transpose(semitones,sequenceable)

transpose(-1,sequence('c d e'))

p = interval(-4,4,1)

transpose(p,note('c'))

pitchmap

Create a sequence with notes for which the order and the pitch are changed. 1-based indexing.

transposemap(‘int2int’,object)

transposemap('1:-1,1:0,1:1',note('c')) // => B3 C D

play

Play all musical objects.

play(sequenceable)

play(s1,s2,s3) // play s3 after s2 after s1

print

Prints an object when evaluated (play,loop).


progression

Create a Chord progression using this format.

progression(‘scale’,‘space-separated-roman-chords’)

progression('C','II V I') // => (D F A) (G B D5) (C E G)

random

Create a random integer generator. Use next() to generate a new integer.

random(from,to)

num = random(1,10)

next(num)

record

Create a recorded sequence of notes from the current MIDI input device.

record(rec)

rec = sequence('') // variable to store the recorded sequence

record(rec) // record notes played on the current input device and stop recording after 5 seconds

repeat

Repeat one or more musical objects a number of times.

repeat(times,sequenceables)

repeat(4,sequence('c d e'))

replace

Replaces all occurrences of one musical object with another object for a given composed musical object.

replace(target,from,to)

c = note('c')

d = note('d')

pitchA = transpose(1,c)

pitchD = replace(pitchA, c, d) // c -> d in pitchA

resequence

Creates a modifier of sequence notes by index (1-based).

resequence(‘space-separated-1-based-indices’,sequenceable)

s1 = sequence('C D E F G A B')

i1 = resequence('6 5 4 3 2 1',s1) // => B A G F E D

i2 = resequence('(6 5) 4 3 (2 1)',s1) // => (B A) G F (E D)

reverse

Reverse the (groups of) notes in a sequence.

reverse(sequenceable)

reverse(chord('a'))

rotate

Rotates note(groups) in a sequence. count is negative for rotating left.

rotate(count,object)

rotate(-1,sequence('C E G')) // E G C

			

scale

Create a Scale using this format.

scale(octaves,‘scale-syntax’)

scale(1,'e/m') // => E F G A B C5 D5

sequence

Create a Sequence using this format.

sequence(‘space-separated-notes’)

sequence('c d e')

sequence('(8c d e)') // => (8C D E)

sequence('c (d e f) a =')

set

Generic function to change a default setting.

set(setting-name,setting-value)

set('midi.in',1) // default MIDI input device is 1

set('midi.in.channel',2,10) // default MIDI channel for device 2 is 10

set('midi.out',3) // default MIDI output device is 3

stop

Stop running loop(s) or listener(s). Ignore if it was stopped.

stop(control)

l1 = loop(sequence('c e g'))

play(l1)

stop(l1)

stop() // stop all playables

stretch

Stretches the duration of musical object(s) with a factor. If the factor < 1 then duration is shortened.

stretch(factor,object)

stretch(2,note('c'))  // 2C

stretch(0.25,sequence('(c e g)'))  // (16C 16E 16G)

stretch(8,note('c'))  // C with length of 8 x 0.25 (quarter) = 2 bars

sync

Synchronise playing musical objects. Use play() for serial playing.

sync(object)

sync(s1,s2,s3) // play s1,s2 and s3 at the same time

sync(loop1,loop2) // begin loop2 at the next start of loop1

track

Create a named track for a given MIDI channel with a musical object.

track(‘title’,midi-channel, onbar(1,object))

track("lullaby",1,onbar(2, sequence('c d e'))) // => a new track on MIDI channel 1 with sequence starting at bar 2

transpose (pitch)

Change the pitch with a delta of semitones.

transpose(semitones,sequenceable)

transpose(-1,sequence('c d e'))

p = interval(-4,4,1)

transpose(p,note('c'))

transposemap (pitchmap)

Create a sequence with notes for which the order and the pitch are changed. 1-based indexing.

transposemap(‘int2int’,object)

transposemap('1:-1,1:0,1:1',note('c')) // => B3 C D

trim

Create a new sequence object with notes trimmed at the start or/and at the end.

trim(remove-from-start,remove-from-end,object)

t = trim(1,2,sequence('c d e f a') // d e

undynamic

Set the dymamic to normal for all notes in a musical object.

undynamic(sequenceable)

undynamic('A+ B++ C-- D-') // =>  A B C D

ungroup

Undo any grouping of notes from one or more musical objects.

ungroup(sequenceable)

ungroup(chord('e')) // => E G B

ungroup(sequence('(c d)'),note('e')) // => C D E

value

Returns the current value of a variable.


velocitymap

Create a sequence with notes for which the order and the velocities are changed. Velocity 0 means no change.

velocitymap(‘int2int’,object)

velocitymap('1:30,2:0,3:60',chord('c')) // => (C3--- E G5+)
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